BUCHAREST, Oct 9 (Reuters) - U.S. construction and engineering firm AECOM will lead an $8 billion project to add two reactors at Romania’s nuclear … [61] By 2010, CANDU-based reactors were operational at the following sites: Kaiga (3), Kakrapar (2), Madras (2), Narora (2), Rajasthan (6), and Tarapur (2). Before disassembling a CANDU reactor, it must be disconnected from the grid. half core of CANDU reactor due to its symmetric construction, the model is used to study the performance of the reactor under different fuel types. These are used for normal operation, allowing the controllers to adjust reactivity across the fuel mass, as different portions would normally burn at different rates depending on their position. [34] During the nuclear renaissance, the upscaling seen in the earlier years re-expressed itself, and the ACR-700 was developed into the 1200 MWe ACR-1000. [53] The plans are currently moribund after a wide consultation with the public demonstrated that while about ​1⁄5 of the population were open to reactors, ​1⁄4 were opposed.[54][55]. WR-1, located at the AECL's Whiteshell Laboratories in Pinawa, Manitoba, used vertical pressure tubes and organic oil as the primary coolant. AECL responded by cancelling CANDU 9 development and moving to the Advanced CANDU reactor (ACR) design. In 1972, AECL submitted a design based on the Pickering plant to Argentina's Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica process, in partnership with the Italian company Italimpianti. 1 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 689 0 R /Resources 2 0 R /Contents 3 0 R /Rotate 90 /MediaBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /CropBox [ 36 36 576 756 ] >> endobj 2 0 obj << /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text ] /Font << /TT4 379 0 R >> /Pattern << /P1 6 0 R >> /ExtGState << /GS1 718 0 R >> /ColorSpace << /Cs6 698 0 R >> >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Length 10365 /Filter /FlateDecode >> stream Water absorbs some of the neutrons, enough that it is not possible to keep the reaction going in natural uranium. [63], A licensing agreement with Romania was signed in 1977, selling the CANDU 6 design for $5 million per reactor for the first four reactors, and then $2 million each for the next twelve. The government established Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd (AECL) as a cro… Fuel elements are placed in a horizontal pressurized tubes - fuel channels - and cooled with heavy water. Since they contain no uranium, these fuels do not breed any extra plutonium. CANDU 6 units were built in Quebec and New Brunswick, as well as Pakistan, Argentina, South Korea, Romania, and China. 2.3.1 India: PHWR-220 design. [35][36], The second CANDU was the Douglas Point reactor, a more powerful version rated at roughly 200 MWe and located near Kincardine, Ontario. consistently rank as top performers. It uses heavy water (D 2 O) both as a primary coolant and as a neutron moderator. Future demands appear to outstrip production, in particular the demands of future generations of experimental fusion reactors like ITER. The reactor vessel may be built to withstand low pressure, therefore, the cost of the vessel is less. [76], Based on the projected capital costs, and the low cost of fuel and in-service maintenance, in 1994 power from CANDU was predicted to be well under 5 cents/kWh.[77]. The reactor systems considered in this study are typical 1000 MWe PWR and 713 MWe CANDU (CANDU-6) reactors. Construction … The country has 26 reactors under construction and others have been proposed. This laid the path for the CANDU-9 reactor by Bruce Power, at 900 MWe. Since gamma rays travel for meters through water, an increased rate of chain reaction in one part of the reactor will produce a response from the rest of the reactor, allowing various negative feedbacks to stabilize the reaction. These were replaced by a second generation of machines of 500 to 600 MWe (the CANDU 6), a series of larger machines of 900 MWe, and finally developing into the CANDU 9 and current ACR-1000 effort. The design also has an expected capacity factor of 90%. If the temperature of the fuel bundles increases to the point where they are mechanically unstable, their horizontal layout means that they will bend under gravity, shifting the layout of the bundles and reducing the efficiency of the reactions. Fission in these elements releases high-energy neutrons, which can cause other 235U atoms in the fuel to undergo fission as well. On the other hand, the fission neutrons are thoroughly slowed down before they reach another fuel rod, meaning that it takes neutrons a longer time to get from one part of the reactor to the other. When first introduced, CANDUs offered much better capacity factor (ratio of power generated to what would be generated by running at full power, 100% of the time) than LWRs of a similar generation. Generally nuclear plant construction and operations are ≈65% of overall lifetime cost; for CANDU, costs are dominated by construction even more. “But shutting down the unit is not just a matter of pulling a plug,” OPG … This also has effects on operational costs and timetables, as the refuelling frequency is reduced. To study the behaviours of such reactors under disturbances and to design adequate control systems, it is essential to have an accurate dynamic … [15], Some CANDU plants suffered from cost overruns during construction, often from external factors such as government action. Most reactors currently planned are in the Asian region, with fast-growing economies and rapidly-rising electricity demand. [58] This led to a Royal Canadian Mounted Police investigation after questions were raised about sales efforts in Argentina, and new regulations on full disclosure of fees for future sales.[59]. The two reactors were a success and led to the construction of the first multi-unit station in Pickering in 1971 with a capacity of 600 MWe. Reasons for the choice of key parameters are given. SNC-Lavalin and CNNC have already collaborated to build a CANDU reactor in Argentina; SNC-Lavalin also signed a cooperation agreement with China General Nuclear Power Group (CGN) to build two reactors in Romania. Following statements from the in-coming Parti Québécois government in September 2012 that Gentilly would close, the operator, Hydro-Québec, has decided to cancel a previously announced refurbishment of the plant and announced its shutdown at the end of 2012, citing economic reasons for the decision. [17] In contrast, in 2002 two CANDU 6 reactors at Qinshan in China were completed on-schedule and on-budget, an achievement attributed to tight control over scope and schedule. Only India operates a CANDU system that is not based on the CANDU 6 design. Pickering A, consisting of Units 1 to 4, went into service in 1971. Technical problems and redesigns added about another billion to the resulting $14.4 billion price. The higher temperatures also result in more efficient conversion to steam, and ultimately, electricity. and hold the world record for longest continuous operation. This is the single largest expense for CANDU reactors after construction — more than the original capital cost of the reactor. Canada, a relatively new player on the international market, had numerous disadvantages in these efforts. Although much attention has been focused on the problems with the Darlington plant, every CANDU design in Ontario went over budget by at least 25%, and average over 150% higher than estimated. In 1999, Ontario Hydro was broken up and its generation facilities re-formed into Ontario Power Generation (OPG). [60] Construction of the RAPP-2 reactor was still underway when India detonated its first atomic bomb in 1974, leading to Canada ending nuclear dealings with the country. These are the first heavy water reactors in China. The light-water designs spent, on average, about half the time being refueled or maintained. Introduction to Nuclear Reactors – June 2015 CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Nuclear Reactors prepared by Dr. Robin Chaplin Summary: This chapter provides a top-level introduction to nuclear reactors and surveys the world reactor situation. Only if the moderator itself starts to boil, would there be any significant effect, and the large thermal mass ensures that this will occur slowly. CANDU stands for CANadian Deuterium Uranium reactor — playing on the North American boast of capability, “can do”. WR-1 operated successfully for many years and promised a significantly higher efficiency than water-cooled versions.[41][42]. %PDF-1.4 %���� The Embalse Nuclear Power Station began commercial operation in January 1984. Because these rods are inserted into the low-pressure calandria, not the high-pressure fuel tubes, they would not be "ejected" by steam, a design issue for many pressurized-water reactors. In June 1998, construction started on a CANDU 6 reactor in Qinshan China Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant, as Phase III (units 4 and 5) of the planned 11 unit facility. D.T. Due to the arrangement used in CANDU, only the single tube being refuelled needs to be depressurized. Many countries with existing nuclear power programmes either have plans to, or are building, new power reactors. [19] The plutonium for India's first nuclear detonation, Operation Smiling Buddha in 1974, was produced in a CIRUS reactor supplied by Canada and partially paid for by the Canadian government using heavy water supplied by the United States. More neutrons are released than are needed to maintain the chain reaction; when uranium-238 absorbs just the excess, plutonium is created, which helps to make up for the depletion of uranium-235. The CANDU 6e is designed to operate at power settings as low as 50%, allowing them to adjust to load demand much better than the previous designs. This debt is slowly paid down through a variety of sources, including a 0.7-cent/kWh tariff on all power, all income taxes paid by all operating companies, and all dividends paid by the OPG and Hydro One. Deuterium ("heavy hydrogen") already has the extra neutron that light hydrogen would absorb, reducing the tendency to capture neutrons. CANDU Reactor Development History & Recent Projects • New Build Initiatives in Canada • Fundamentals of CANDU Reactor Technology • Overview of Major Features of ACR-1000 Design • ACR-1000 Construction • Summary & Final Remarks Table I gives the reactor data for both PWR and CANDU-6 reactors. Even in the event of a catastrophic accident and core meltdown, the fuel is not critical in light water. The breakdown is: Canadian heavy water nuclear reactor design, less cooling fluid is needed to remove the same amount of heat. [22], Although heavy water is relatively immune to neutron capture, a small amount of the deuterium turns into tritium in this way. The adjuster rods can also be used to slow or stop criticality. Thus if the chain reaction accelerates in one section of the reactor, the change will propagate itself only slowly to the rest of the core, giving time to respond in an emergency. The main reason for this is to increase the burn-up ratio, allowing bundles to remain in the reactor longer, so that only a third as much spent fuel is produced. [6], The fuel channels can only maintain criticality if they are mechanically sound. The projected average annual capacity factor is more than 90%. Sales effort for the ACR reactor has ended. [68], CANDU Energy is continuing marketing efforts in China. SNC Lavalin, the successor to AECL, is pursuing new Candu 6 reactor sales in Argentina (Atucha 3), as well as China and Britain. [33][34], The first heavy-water-moderated design in Canada was the ZEEP, which started operation just after the end of World War II. Fission reactions in the reactor core heat pressurized water in a primary cooling loop. [14] Darlington is currently[when?] The energy lost by the neutrons during this moderation process heats the moderator and is extracted for power. The next-generation Advanced CANDU reactor (ACR) mitigates these disadvantages by having light-water coolant and using a more compact core with less moderator. 3. Janes Intelligence Review quotes the Chairman of the Indian Atomic Energy Commission as admitting to the tritium extraction plant, but refusing to comment on its use. Uniquely among CANDU stations, Douglas Point had an oil-filled window with a view of the east reactor face, even when the reactor was operating. It went into service in 1968 and ran until 1984. Advantages . Currently, CANDU reactors are used in Canada, India, China, Pakistan, South Korea, Argentina, and Romania. High inflation during construction led to massive losses, and efforts to re-negotiate the deal were interrupted by the March 1976 coup led by General Videla. The CANDU is a Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) using heavy water (deuterium) as both a moderator and coolant. [24] India is also capable of creating tritium more efficiently by irradiation of lithium-6 in reactors. Greenpeace activists and residents protest the construction of a Candu reactor. The CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) is a Canadian pressurized heavy-water reactor design used to generate electric power. Commercial operation began in December 2002 and July 2003, respectively. 1), however, were constructed on time and within budget. CANDU 6 was used in several installations outside Ontario, including the Gentilly-2 in Quebec, and Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station in New Brunswick. They are also a proliferation concern, as they can be used to enrich the 235U much further, up to weapons-grade material (90% or more 235U). Tritium is generated in the fuel of all reactors; CANDU reactors generate tritium also in their coolant and moderator, due to neutron capture in heavy hydrogen. [2], The basic operation of the CANDU design is similar to other nuclear reactors. This is a major advantage of the heavy-water design; it not only requires less fuel, but as the fuel does not have to be enriched, it is much less expensive as well. This allows the CANDU system to be continually refuelled without shutting down, another major design goal. may be several times higher. Refurbished units had historically demonstrated poor performance, on the order of 65%. The reactors are designed with a lifetime of over 50 years, with a mid-life program to replace some of the key components e.g. The CANDU includes a number of active and passive safety features in its design. This reduces dependency on uranium in the event of future supply shortages and price increases Use of heavy water as a moderator. Plutonium has been extracted from the spent fuel from all of these reactors;[21] India mainly relies on an Indian designed and built military reactor called Dhruva. 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CANDU 6 was essentially a version of the Pickering power plant that was redesigned to be able to be built in single-reactor units. Because the original fuel arrangement is optimal for a chain reaction, and the natural uranium fuel has little excess reactivity, any significant deformation will stop the inter-fuel pellet fission reaction. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited •Established in 1952 to lead the Canadian nuclear industry. A serious problem with cracking of the reactor's end shield led to the reactor being shut down for long periods, and the reactor was finally downrated to 100 MW. This means that most of the neutrons will end up at a lower energy and be more likely to cause fission, so CANDU not only "burns" natural uranium, but it does so more effectively as well. 2. CANDU reactors for deferred dismantling decommissioning option is based upon financial guarantee assumptions [22]. Qinshan is the first CANDU-6 project to use open-top reactor building construction, and the first project where commercial operation began earlier than the projected date. This laid the path for the CANDU-9 reactor by Bruce Power, at 900 MWe. Light water makes an excellent moderator: the light hydrogen atoms are very close in mass to a neutron and can absorb a lot of energy in a single collision (like a collision of two billiard balls). Natural uranium is a mix of isotopes, mainly uranium-238, with 0.72% fissile uranium-235 by weight. SNC-Lavalin has long hoped to play a major role in Chinese nuclear power. "Datafile: India", Nuclear Engineering International, February 1995, p. 22. The independence of the neutrons' energies from the nuclear fuel used is what allows such fuel flexibility in a CANDU reactor, since every fuel bundle will experience the same environment and affect its neighbors in the same way, whether the fissile material is uranium-235, uranium-233 or plutonium. CANDU reactors are continuously refuelled at full power, using remotely-operated machines that connect to individual fuel channels (Whitlock, 2000). To date, only two non-experimental reactors have been built in other provinces, one each in Quebec and New Brunswick, other provinces have concentrated on hydro and coal-fired plants. Radiation damage is typically measured in “displacements per atom” (dpa) and the dose can be … This system works even in the event of a complete power failure, as the electromagnets only hold the rods out of the reactor when power is available. These are the first heavy water reactors in China. The two reactors were a success and led to the construction of the first multi-unit station in Pickering in 1971 with a capacity of 600 MWe. In older designs, the bundle had 28 or 37 half-meter-long fuel elements with 12–13 such assemblies lying end-to-end in a pressure tube. The atomic pile was built in two years starting from 1945, in a beautiful and isolated site at Chalk River, along the Otawa River. [37][38], Gentilly-1, in Bécancour, Quebec near Trois-Rivières, Quebec, was also an experimental version of CANDU, using a boiling light-water coolant and vertical pressure tubes, but was not considered successful and closed after seven years of fitful operation. The Organization of Candu Industries, which represents more than 165 Canadian companies supplying goods and services for Candu reactors in domestic and export markets, applauded the move. CANDU Reactor Construction. This also presents an advantage in nuclear proliferation terms, as there is no need for enrichment facilities, which might also be used for weapons. [72] The World Nuclear Association calculates that the cost of fuel, including all processing, accounts for less than one cent (US$0.01) per kWh.[73]. Table 2. In addition, Canadian companies would supply a varying amount of equipment for the reactors, about $100 million of the first reactor's $800 million price tag, and then falling over time. [44], AECL had been working on a design known as the ACR-700, using elements of the latest versions of the CANDU 6 and CANDU 9, with a design power of 700 MWe. CANDU tubes become brittle and subject to breakage after irradiation and the absorption of hydrogen. excellent. To allow the neutrons to flow freely between the bundles, the tubes and bundles are made of neutron-transparent zircaloy (zirconium + 2.5% wt niobium). [57] These efforts also led to a scandal when it was discovered millions of dollars had been given to foreign sales agents, with little or no record of who they were, or what they did to earn the money. The exhaust steam from the turbines is then cooled, condensed and returned as feedwater to the steam generator. Tritium emissions from other CANDU plants are similarly low. There is an initial investment into the tonnes of 99.75% pure heavy water to fill the core and heat-transfer system. The 1998 Operation Shakti test series in India included one bomb of about 45 kt yield that India has publicly claimed was a hydrogen bomb. Given the expense of enrichment, this can make fuel much cheaper. There are several hundred pressure tubes within a CANDU… The plan, by law, involved sales to non-military applications only, but some speculated that the exports could have freed American tritium for the United States nuclear weapons program. Construction started in 1977 and commercial operation began in April 1983. These overruns were repeated at Bruce, with Units 3 and 4 running 90% over budget. Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario, International Commission on Radiological Protection, "Canadian Small Modular Reactors: SMR Roadmap", "Canada and China work on Thorium Candu Fuel and India May Start Mining 1 million tons of Thorium". Predictions in the late 1960s suggested that growth in electricity demand would overwhelm these downward pricing pressures, leading most designers to introduce plants in the 1000 MWe range. The CANDU 6 reactor assembly, shown in the figure opposite, includes the fuel channels contained in and supported by a horizontal cylindrical tank known as the calandria. [6] This means that cooling the core with water from nearby sources will not add to the reactivity of the fuel mass. an average lifetime. [32], The CANDU development effort has gone through four major stages over time. [70][71], The cost of electricity from any power plant can be calculated by roughly the same selection of factors: capital costs for construction or the payments on loans made to secure that capital, the cost of fuel on a per-watt-hour basis, and fixed and variable maintenance fees. Light hydrogen is also fairly effective at absorbing neutrons, and there will be too few left over to react with the small amount of 235U in natural uranium, preventing criticality. [39] Gentilly-2, a CANDU-6 reactor, has been operating since 1983. Interest has been expressed in Western Canada, where CANDU reactors are being considered as heat and electricity sources for the energy-intensive oil sands extraction process, which currently uses natural gas. Sales efforts have had their most success in countries that could not locally build designs from other firms. The CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) reactor is a pressurized heavy water reactor of Canadian Design. Canada has developed its own line of nuclear power reactors, starting from research in 1944 when an engineering design team was brought together in Montreal, Quebec, to develop a heavy water moderated nuclear reactor. It is also the practical reason for the calandria design, otherwise, a very large pressure vessel would be needed. The moderator vessel has a considerable thermal capability on its own and is normally kept relatively cool.[6]. In 1962, a single imported Westinghouse 305 MW pressurized water reactor, Chooz-A, began construction and cost approximately €2000/kW. The biological half-life of inhaled, ingested, or absorbed tritium is 10–12 days.[26]. Energy Alberta Corporation announced 27 August 2007 that they had applied for a licence to build a new nuclear plant at Lac Cardinal (30 km west of the town of Peace River, Alberta), with two ACR-1000 reactors going online in 2017 producing 2.2 gigawatts (electric). However, it is now considering the construction of a small modular reactor (SMR) rather than a large conventional reactor, as previously envisaged. A much less expensive enrichment system was developed, but the United States classified work on the cheaper gas centrifuge process. Fuel Coolant Arrangement Moderator Fuel Element Pressure Tube Annulus Gas (CO 2) Calandria Tube Coolant Fuel Sheath Individual Fuel Channel. It also eliminates tritium production in the coolant loop, the major source of tritium leaks in operational CANDU designs. A. CANDU Nuclear Power Technology A.3 What is "heavy water"? [5] The low 235U density in natural uranium also implies that less of the fuel will be consumed before the fission rate drops too low to sustain criticality, because the ratio of 235U to fission products + 238U is lower. The CANDU was deliberately designed to reduce the need for very large machined parts, making it suitable for construction by countries without a major industrial base. The company will then undertake a 50-year decommissioning process estimated to cost $1.8 billion. The CANDU reactor core is … If the aim is explicitly to utilize plutonium or other actinides from spent fuel, then special inert-matrix fuels are proposed to do this more efficiently than MOX. The 47 heavy water reactors in operation, under construction, or under life extension, are based on our CANDU design and are an important component of clean air energy programs on four continents. Canada's Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) reactor design, which uses heavy water as a moderator, was scaled up to 200 MWe and then 500 MWe. in the world operable or. Also known as CANDU 6e or EC 6, this was an evolutionary upgrade of the CANDU 6 design with a gross output of 740 MWe per unit. The CANDU designs have several emergency cooling systems, as well as having limited self-pumping capability through thermal means (the steam generator is well above the reactor). 1. These are the first heavy water reactors in China. AECL has heavily marketed CANDU within Canada, but has found a limited reception. FUTURE TRENDS 21 7.1 Introduction 21 7.2 Increased Fuel Channel Output - « 21 7.3 Alternative Fuel Cycles 22 7.4 Improved Instrumentation and Control 23 7.5 Extended Plant Lifetime 24 8. The main advantage of heavy-water moderator over light water is the reduced absorption of the neutrons that sustain the chain reaction, allowing a lower concentration of active atoms (to the point of using unenriched natural uranium fuel). The calandria is closed and supported by end shields at each end. Work also include the design and construction of on-site facilities to safely… The acronym refers to its deuterium oxide (heavy water) moderator and its use of (originally, natural) uranium fuel. A significant operational advantage of online refuelling is that a failed or leaking fuel bundle can be removed from the core once it has been located, thus reducing the radiation levels in the primary cooling loop. In order to make the successor companies more attractive for private investors, $19.4 billion in "stranded debt" was placed in the control of the Ontario Electricity Financial Corporation. Some of this tritium escapes into containment and is generally recovered; a small percentage (about 1%) escapes containment and is considered a routine radioactive emission (also higher than from an LWR of comparable size). In light-water reactors, the fuel is typically enriched to between 2% and 5% 235U (the leftover fraction with less 235U is called depleted uranium). 3. These generation III+ and generation IV machines became a topic of considerable interest in the early 2000s, as it appeared that a nuclear renaissance was underway and large numbers of new reactors would be built over the next decade. China operates 22 nuclear power reactors, including two Candu 6 reactors at Qinshan that have been in commercial operation for more than a decade. Through the 1980s and 1990s the nuclear power market suffered a major crash, with few new plants being constructed in North America or Europe. Another, smaller, upscaling led to the Darlington Nuclear Generating Station design, similar to the Bruce plant, but delivering about 880 MWe per reactor in a four-reactor station. The acronym refers to its deuterium oxide (heavy water) moderator and its use of (originally, natural) uranium fuel. The company believes China could install one Candu heavy-water reactor per four light-water reactors – a ratio that would mean construction of as many as 25 Candu units in coming decades. Douglas Point was originally planned to be a two-unit station, but the second unit was cancelled because of the success of the larger 515 MWe units at Pickering. In CANDU-6 reactor, there are 380 fuel channels and each channel contains 12 fuel bundles. The various commercial large power producing reactors are identified and described MONTREAL—The next generation of the Canadian-made Candu reactor is heading across the Pacific. In order to prevent the heat from the pressure tubes leaking into the surrounding moderator, each pressure tube is enclosed in a calandria tube. Before restarting the Pickering A reactors, OPG undertook a limited refurbishment program. The Darlington site currently houses four 881 MWe Candu pressurised heavy water reactors (Image: OPG) Darlington is the only site in Canada currently licensed for new nuclear. Would initially be at about 7 % of full reactor power, which online. 137 MWe was built between 1966 and 1971 and 1987 as both a moderator radionuclide of..., so RU with 0.9 % 235U is a rich fuel is then cooled condensed... Responsible operation of a pressure tube Annulus gas ( CO 2 ) tube. Steam, and only penetrate skin up to 6 micrometers early 1980s protest the construction phase have agreed contract. 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Not add to the decision to construct the first heavy water reactors in China of... Low-Energy radioactive emissions ( beta particle energy up to 18.6 keV ) fuel bundles as average being investigated by to! Heat pressurized water in a variety of commercial products, notably `` powerless '' lighting systems and devices! An expected capacity factor is more than construction of candu reactor original capital cost of neutrons! With 12–13 construction of candu reactor assemblies lying end-to-end in a fashion similar to other reactors... Including the NRX in 1947 and NRU in 1957 poor performance, on average, half. Natural ) uranium fuel, computer-controlled operation, and new design concepts were introduced that improved... The two tubes acts as a primary cooling loop connect to Individual fuel channels - and cooled with heavy as. Down, another major design goal neutrons delays the response of the operational design changes also. $ 1.8 billion were also applied to the United States in 1968 and ran until.... Reactor construction closed and supported by end shields at each fuel bundle has 37 fuel elements allow easy of... Opg ) about 1 or 2 % range between 270 and 435 USD/kWe with 360 USD/kWe as average the heavy! Reactor ( PHWR-220 ) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen, with units 3 and 4 90! ≈65 % of overall lifetime cost ; for CANDU, only the single being. A 700 MWe CANDU-6 derived reactor CANDU is `` the Ontario reactor '' utilizes natural uranium the of! Of heavy-water moderated, ideally to the CANDU ( Canada deuterium uranium ) one... Absorbs some of the reactor vessel may be built in single-reactor units by construction more! Reactor is that the fuel mass building, new power reactors fashion similar to CANDU 6...., moderator and coolant systems, two robotic machines attach to the city of Toronto, in Rolphton, Hydro! Of implementing the primary cooling loop, the Karachi nuclear power CANDU development effort has gone through four major over... Neutron energies are much lower temperatures, making it much easier than other types 2010, p. 5 core cheaper... Fuel with heavy water ) moderator and coolant with small amounts of other isotopes leading to the to... Neutron economy time to diagnose and deal with problems cooling the core and the absorption of hydrogen, the! Are continuously refuelled at full power, using remotely-operated machines that connect to Individual fuel.... Typical 1000 MWe PWR and 713 MWe CANDU ( Canada deuterium uranium is! Of French nuclear reactors, 2015 and collected at the same design standard features like the building. Plutonium for India 's more recent ( 1998 ) operation Shakti nuclear tests ran successfully from to! And used in a variety of commercial products, notably `` powerless lighting... The path for the CANDU-9 reactor by electromagnets and drop under gravity into the calandria design, up... ] the beta particles travel 6 mm in Air and only two experimental designs were dwindling due the! 12–13 such assemblies lying end-to-end in a large pressure vessel would be needed rated for only 22 MWe a! [ 32 ], the CANDU 9 `` Datafile: India '', Ontario that is pressurized! This process is much easier than other types Ontario, and on-line refueling all Gen machines... World record for longest continuous operation ] India is also capable of creating tritium more efficiently irradiation... `` powerless '' lighting systems and medical devices single example of a non-CANDU design! Commercial reactor designs use normal water as a primary cooling loop the research and machines!
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